So jubilant Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu, shared the tedious journey across the inhospitable desert; scorching sands, razor-edged rubble carpeting the foothills of the sharp unforgiving granite sentinels marking the area between Madinah and Badr. One camel was assigned for every three Sahabah RadhiAllahu anhum to ride, so we can imagine Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu walking at least two thirds of the way. The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam was adamant that he too face the same conditions as his companions and refused to ride when it was his turn, SubhanAllah! And they were all experiencing their first fast, the very first Ramadhan having recently been revealed.
Exuberant Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu valiantly fought against the enemy. Was he witness to the miraculous events around him? Was he one of the ones to actually see Jibreel Alaihis Salaam with his yellow turban flying, along with the thousand Angels dressed in white turbans, astride their mounts as they attacked and repelled the Quraish? The presence of the Angels was felt by all, as strength by the faithful and as a terror by the enemy, but the presence was actually only seen and the neighing of the stallions heard by a select few, and in varying degrees.
Was Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu aware of the incident when was of the believers was pursuing one of the idolaters when suddenly his head was decapitated before the Sahabah was near him, struck by an unseen force.
Did Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu see Ukkashah bin Maihsin RadhiAllahu anhu break his sword, to be given a piece of wood by the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam, which as he began to swing it, it turned right there in his hand, into a long and powerful sword. Ukkashah RadhiAllahu anhu continued to fight with sword until he was martyred during the Caliphate of Abu Bakr RadhiAllahu anhu, in the Apostate Wars.
Or maybe Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu saw the arrow strike out the eye of Rifa’ah bin Raafai RadhiAllahu anhu, with the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam immediately applying his spittle and making Du’a, with the eye being restored and having better sight than the other eye from that day on.
Did Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu witness the slaying of the ugliest enemy of the Muslims, rejoicing in his downfall?
We may never know what this exuberant lad experienced. We can be inspired by the sacrifice of these brave warriors who set out ready to sacrifice their all for the sake of their new found Deen.
May we take a little time remembering their efforts, on this 17th day of Ramadhan, reflecting upon the trust they had, the obedience to follow commands and their love of the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam. May we learn from our rich history. Ameen.
The questions and the answers from the Ramadhan 07 "quiz". (There are slight variations in narrations with some of these answers, I have stated what seems to be the most common consensus of opinion, and Allah Almighty knows best.)
1. What was the reason behind the battle?
A caravan of Quraish was returning from Syria, being led by Abu Sufyan. It carried goods worth 50,000 gold dinars with only 40 men as guards. From a strategic point of view, a raid or military strike might cause a heavy economic blow to the Quraishites who were prone to harm the Muslims in every possible way. Also it was an opportunity for the Muslims to recoup some of what they left when they migrated from Makkah, leaving all possessions and property behind.
2. What did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam do initially?
He SallAllahu alaihi wasallam sent Talhah bin Ibaidullah and Saeed bin Zaid RadhiAllahu anhuma to collect information about the enemy. The he exhorted the Muslims to raid the caravan for compensation of all they left in Makkah.
3. How many Muslims accompanied the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam?
313 Sahabah RadhiAllahu anhum
4. How many were Muhajiroon and how many Ansar?
86 Muhajirron and 231 Ansari
5. What animals were they equipped with? 70 camels and two horses, one with Zubair bin Awwam and one with Miqdad bin Aswad, RadhiAllahu anhuma
6. Who was appointed Governor of Madinah in the absence of the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam?
First Ibn Umm Maktum, then Abu Lababah bin Abdul Mundhir, RadhiAlahu anhuma
7. Who was the flag bearer for the Muslim army?
Mus’ab bin Umair Quraishi RadhiAllahu anhu was carrying the general flag.
8. What colour was the flag?
It was white.
9. How was the Muslim army divided?
There were two battalions: The Muhajiroon under Ali RadhiAllahu anhu and the Ansar under S’ad bin Muath RadhiAllahu anhu. Zabair bin Awwam RadhiAllahu anhu was given the command of the right flank and Miqdad bin Amr RadhiAllahu anhu the left flank, while the command of the rear ws given to Qais bin Abi Sa’sa’ah RadhiAllahu anhu, with the Prophet naturally being the Commander-in-Chief.
10. Where did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam head towards?
He marched out along the road leading to Makkah, then turned towards Badr. When he reached Safra he dispatched two men to scout for the camels of Quraish.
11. What did Abu Sufyan do?
As soon as his men informed him that the Muslims were lying in ambush for his caravan he sent a message to Makkah for help.
12. How did the Quraish react?
They were enraged and swiftly mustered an army of all available people, including some Muslims who had been in Makkah, and they were forced to join the army, includingSayyidna Abbas RadhiAllahu anhu the uncle of the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam and the two sons of Abu Talib, RadhiAllahu anhuma.
13. What was the message they received on their way to Badr?
They received a message from Abu Sufyan advising them to go back as his caravan had escaped the Muslims.
14. What was the manoeuvre adopted by Abu Sufyan?
He led his caravan off the main route and turned it towards the Red Sea to slip past the Muslims.
15. What did the Makkans think on hearing of the situation?
They thought of returning to Makkah, but Abu Jahl forced them to proceed to Badr and stay there for three days.
16. Who was leading the Makkans?
17. How many Makkans were there? Various narrations record 1000-1300 including 200 horses. 600 coats of mail, female war-song chanters and their drums. On every stage of their journey ten camels were slaughtered to feed them.
18. Why did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam decide to encounter the enemy?
When the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam learnt that the pagan army was camping itself at Badr, he along with the other Muslims wanted to avoid any possibility of the enemy marching to Madinah , so he decided after consulting with the Sahabah RadhiAllahu anhum to march to Badr.
19. How did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam know all the details about the enemy?
Through Ali bin Abi Talib, Zubair bin Awwam and Sa’d bin Abi Waqqas, RadhiAllahu anhum who spied on the enemy.
20. How did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam spend the night before the battle?
He spent it in prayer asking for Allah Ta’ala’s help in favour of the Muslims. The Sahabah RadhiAllahu anhum constructed a small twig –roofed hut for our Beloved Prophet, called ‘Arish, to act as his command post, or the military headquarters. The present day Masjid commemorating this heroic battle stands at this place.
When you were calling your Lord for help, so He responded to you (saying): "I am going to support you with one thousand of the Angels, one following the other." (8:9)
And the Du’a the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam made was:
"O Allah, let the promise You have made to me come true now. O Allah, if this modest group of Muslims were to perish, then, on Your earth, there shall remain no one to worship You."
The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam kept busy with this Du’a earnestly and plaintively so muc so that the sheet wrap around his shoulders slid down. Sayyidna Abu Bakr Radhiallahu anhu stepped forward and put the sheet back on his blessed body and said to him: "Ya Rasulullah, please worry no more. Allah will surely respond to your prayer and fulfill His promise." The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam later came to Abu Bakr RadhiAllahu anhu smiling, and said: O Abu Bakr, here comes good news for you, this is Jibreel Alaihis Salaam satnding near the cliff." The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam was reciting the following verse:
Soon the gathered group of the enemy will be defeated and they will turn (their) backs. (54:45)
According to some narrations the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam pointed to places saying this is the spot where Abu Jahl will be killed, and this is for so and so and this for so and so, and events did turn out to be precisely as he indicated.
21. Who was the first to trigger the war?
An idolater named Aswad bin Abdul Asad Makhzumi.
22. What happened to him?
He pledged that he would drink water from the spring of the Muslims, otherwise he would destroy it or die for it. Hamza RadhiAllahu anhu struck his leg with his sword and killed him inside the spring.
23. What did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam do when the general fighting started?
The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam invoked Allah Ta’ala for his support.
24. What was the result?
Allah Ta’ala sent Angels for the Muslim’s help. The Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam at the instance of Jibreel Alaihis Salaam took handfuls of dust and threw this at the enemy, saying: "May your faces be deformed."
25. What verse of the Qur’an Majeed refers to this?
So you did not kill them, but Allah killed them. And you did not throw when you threw but Allah did throw, so that He may bless the believers with a good favour. Surely Allah is All-Hearing, All-knowing. Apart from that, Allah is the One who frustrates the device of the disbelievers. (8:17,18)
26. Who killed the leader of the enemy?
Muath bin Amr and Muawwadh bin Afra RadhiAllahu anhuma
27. Who received his sword?
Abdullah bin Masu’d RadhiAllahu anhu, who cut his head off and took it to the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam.
28. How many Muslims were martyred?
14, 6 Muhajirron and 8 Ansar.
29. How many of the enemy were killed and how many taken captive?
70 killed and 70 taken captive, though some narrations say 50 taken captive, and Allah Almighty knows best.
30. How did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam distribute the booty?
He distributed the booty equally among the fighters after putting aside one fifth of it, according to the Divine revelation that came down to him. (8:1-4)
31. What did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam decide about the captives?
He decided to take ransom for their release in order to support the Muslims financially.
32. What was another option given to the captives?
The captives could agree to participate in and educational program: every prisoner to teach ten children reading and writing, also some were released on humanitarian grounds.
33. When did the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam return to Madinah?
After spending three days in Badr after the victory.
34. What was the importance of Ghazwah Badr?
It was the first encounter between the Muslims and the disbelievers. It proved they possessed good military skills; they extended the area of spreading Islam, it taught that victory comes only from Allah Ta’ala, it instilled loyalty for the sake of Allah Ta’ala, and not for family or tribal affiliations, patriotism or nationalism. The war cry for the Muslims on this day was "One, One", referring to the Oneness of Allah Ta’ala.
35. Why did Allah Ta’ala describe the Day of Badr as Yaumal Furqan (The Day of Distinction)?
Because it made the distinction between the people of truth and belief and the people of disbelief, a distinction between truth and falsehood.
36. What was the sad news the Prophet SallAllahu alaihi wasallam came home to?
The death of his beloved daughter, Ruqayya RadhiAllahu anha. May Allah Ta’ala bless her soul.
37. What was the fate of Umayr RadhiAllahu anhu?
Umayr RadhiAllahu, the enthusiastic lad gained the martyrdom he so sincerely wished for. May Allah Ta’ala bless his soul and all who died in this historic battle for the entire Ummah of Muhammad SallAllahu alaihi wasallam.
Volume 4 page 145, Surah Al-Anfal, (the detailed descriptionbegins on page 157)a comprehensive tafseer of Ghazwah Badr by Maulana Mufti Muhammad Shafi
the complete list of the Badriyyah Sahabah RadhiAllahu, including the names of the Martyrs, May Allah bless them all.
This work is an extract of the Second Volume of English Translation of Sirat-un-Nabi originally written in Urdu by the late ‘Allama Shibli Nu’mani, a well-known Muslim historian who requires no commendation. His famous work Sirat-un-Nabi also hardly stands in need of any introduction. The book Sirut-un-Nabi is translated by M. Tiyyib Baksh Budayuni who has the full command of both the languages, Urdu as well as English.
http://www.manaqib.org/ an audio download of the names of the participants in the Battle of Badr, plus an accompanying booklet espousing the virtues of Noble Companions of Badr
All good is from Allah Ta’ala whereas mistakes are from this humble speck. May Allah Ta’ala Bless all readers, bringing you all closer to Him and His Rasul SallAllahu alaihi wasallam. Ameen.